Tobacco use causes more than 8 million deaths globally each year, with around 80% of the world’s smokers living in low- and middle-income countries. The costs of tobacco are high in terms of the negative impacts on public health and the economy. Increasing taxes on tobacco is the most effective way to reduce tobacco consumption and improve health outcomes, while also raising government revenues. However, as a policy tool, tobacco tax is widely underutilised. This is partly due to lobbying by the industry, which often makes exaggerated and false claims about the potential impacts of increasing taxes. Therefore, rigorous independent research and evidence is needed to inform policymakers in developing countries.