Publications

Showing 36-47 of 352 publications

Tax Compliance of Wealthy Individuals in Rwanda

by Jalia Kangave, Kieran Byrne & John Karangwa

Increasing emphasis is being placed on the need for low income countries to collect more tax revenue. In parallel, the need for equitable tax systems is also gaining prominence. While African countries have made remarkable progress in increasing tax collections, taxation in many African countries is inequitable in various respects. For example, many revenue authorities…

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Who can make Ugandan Taxpayers more Compliant?

by Ronald Waiswa, Doris Akol & Milly Nalukwago Isingoma

The rate of occurrence of tax evasion is higher in Uganda than in the rest of East Africa. Where the taxpayer has latitude to decide whether or not to be compliant, as in the case of income taxes, Ugandans seem to be less compliant than other East Africans. Uganda collects less in domestic taxes than…

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July 2020

Tax Compliance of Wealthy Individuals in Rwanda

by Jalia Kangave, Kieran Byrne & John Karangwa

Low-income countries are increasing their fiscal independence through the improvement of domestic taxation systems. To continue to do so, they must ensure that these systems are perceived as equitable and preserve their integrity. An essential characteristic of an equitable tax system is the treatment of wealthy individuals. In this paper, we use key informant interviews…

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Active Ghosts: Nil-filing in Rwanda

by Giulia Mascagni, Fabrizio Santoro, Denis Mukama & Naphtal Hakizimana prepared by Adrienne Lees

Poor compliance is one of the key factors behind persistently low tax-to-GDP ratios in developing countries. Two dimensions of non-compliance that have been widely studied are under-reporting and non-filing (i.e. failing to submit a tax declaration altogether). However, there is a third and largely under-researched dimension of non-compliance: nil-filing. It refers to taxpayers who are…

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July 2020

What is ‘Offshore’? International Tax Evasion and Avoidance and How to Combat it

by Sol Picciotto

This briefing aims to explain the ‘offshore’ system which enables both evasion and avoidance of tax, as well as of other types of laws and regulations, and discusses countermeasures. All illicit cross-border financial flows exploit the offshore system, so understanding how it works is the key to ensuring effective and coherent countermeasures, in relation to…

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June 2020

A Simplified Method for Taxing Multinationals for Developing Countries: Building on the ‘Amount B’ Proposal to Repair the Transactional Net Margin Method

by Michael C. Durst

This paper considers whether the ‘Amount B’ proposal currently being negotiated in the Inclusive Framework, for the attribution of fixed remuneration for the ‘routine’ distribution and marketing activities of MNE affiliates, may offer a useful template for the re-working of the widely used ‘transactional net margin’ transfer pricing method (TNMM). The TNMM has for years…

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Review of Tax Treaty Practices and Policy Framework in Africa

by Catherine Ngina Mutava

Tax treaties are agreements through which two countries agree to assign and restrict taxing rights on economic activities that span both countries. They were traditionally concluded mainly to avoid double taxation and create a favourable investment climate. However, in recent years, tax treaties concluded by sub-Saharan African countries – with OECD countries in particular –…

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June 2020

The Taxation of the Digitalised Economy: An African Study

by Mustapha Ndajiwo

The advent of digitalised business models has considerable potential to improve trade in Africa, however, it has greatly exacerbated the two central challenges of international tax. The first challenge is the definition of taxable presence, and the second is the allocation of business profits of multinational enterprises (MNEs) among the different jurisdictions where they operate….

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Gender and Tax Policies in the Global South

by Anuradha Joshi, Jalia Kangave & Vanessa van den Boogaard

There is a limited, but growing body of literature on the gender effects of taxation. Most of the studies are from the global north and relate to details of direct personal income tax policies and indirect taxes with a small but growing body of work focused in the Global South, primarily exploring indirect, small, and…

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May 2020

De-Linking Tobacco Taxation and Illicit Trade in Africa

by Max Gallien

Smoking tobacco has been much less common traditionally in Africa than in Europe or North America. But this is changing. As Africa has become a growth market for the tobacco industry, adverse health effects are increasingly visible. While increasing tobacco taxation has been shown as the most effective policy tool in curbing tobacco consumption, many…

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Addressing the Challenges of Taxation of the Digital Economy: Lessons for African Countries

by Solomon Rukundo

The rapid growth of the digital economy in many African countries poses serious challenges to traditional tax regimes. Revenue authorities must protect their revenue base without hindering the development and use of new technologies or the business community’s involvement in the e-marketplace. Two international taxation rules pose a challenge to taxing the global digital economy….

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