Research in Brief 107

In democracies, protests are often viewed by citizens as a costly last resort measure to demand more economic and political rights and resources from policymakers by whom they feel unheard. When citizens feel unheard, they may protest. A stark example of this was the Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests ignited by the killing of George Floyd. Over 15 million people participated in BLM protests in 2020 alone, and the protests in the 2010s resulted in it being labelled the ‘decade of protest.’ Many of these protests have highlighted distributive justice claims, from reparations to descendants of African slaves to redistribution of economic capital.


Belinda Archibong

Belinda Archibong is an assistant professor of economics at Barnard College, Columbia University. Her research areas include development economics, political economy, economic history and environmental economics with an African regional focus. She is a faculty affiliate at Columbia University's Center for Development Economics and Policy (CDEP), the Earth Institute at Columbia University, the Institute of African Studies, the Institute for Research in African-American Studies, the Columbia Population Research Center (CPRC), and the Center for Environmental Economics and Policy (CEEP).

Tom Moerenhout

Dr. Tom Moerenhout (Columbia University) leads research on the political economy and international economic law of policy interventions in the area of sustainable development. He is also senior associate at the Global Subsidies Initiative (GSI) of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD).

Evans Osabuohien

Evans S. Osabuohien is Professor of Economics & former Head, Department of Economics and Development Studies, Covenant University, Nigeria. He was the Pioneer Chair of the Centre for Economic Policy & Development Research (CEPDeR) at Covenant University, Nigeria. He is Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) Visiting Professor at Witten/Herdecke University, Germany and Visiting at Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.
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