Working Paper 153

Many low-income countries are increasingly digitising various tax services, usually motivated by efforts to increase efficiency and transparency and reduce the burden of compliance for taxpayers. However, where awareness and adoption are suboptimal, tax e services may produce only partial benefits. In this paper, we examine the adoption of tax e-services in Rwanda, a low-income country which has invested significant resources in digitalising government service delivery and made tax e-services mandatory from 2015. Using a combination of panel survey and tax administrative data, we study the drivers and impacts of e-services awareness and adoption. We find evidence that, before the pandemic, female and less educated taxpayers, with less sophisticated businesses, were left behind in technology adoption, even where e-services were the only option for taxpayers. Exploiting the outbreak of COVID-19 during our data collection, we also study shifts precipitated by a shock that normalised digital transactions. Take-up of e-services is remarkable two years after the pandemic, but still not universal. For those not using the e services the same challenges in access persist – indicating the potential for more targeted policy interventions. Interestingly, technology adoption is not strongly related with filing behaviour, and we study the reasons why non-filers report using the tools and, on the contrary, why active filers report they do not. Also, we do not find any significant impact of e-services adoption on perceived fairness of the tax system and overall willingness to pay, which we hypothesised benefit from e-services. Finally, using evidence from qualitative interviews, we highlight practical challenges in using e-services, such as connectivity problems and slow systems, which undermine the potential benefits.


Fabrizio Santoro

Fabrizio is a Research Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies, and the Research Lead for the second component of the ICTD's DIGITAX Research Programme. His main research interests relate to governance, public finance, and taxation, with a strong focus on impact evaluation methodologies and statistical analysis. He holds a PhD in Economics from the University of Sussex.

Adrienne Lees

Adrienne Lees is a Doctoral Fellow at ICTD, working primarily on projects relating to tax administration and compliance, and on the DIGITAX programme. She has completed an ODI Fellowship in the Tax Policy Department at the Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development in Uganda. Adrienne holds an MSc in Economics for Development from the University of Oxford and is completing her PhD in Economics at the University of Sussex.

Marco Carreras

Marco Carreras is an economist by training and works in development economics, focusing on development banks, agricultural economics, energy and corporate taxation. He is a post-doctoral fellow working on the DIGITAX team in the ICTD.

Theonille Mukamana

Theonille Mukamana is a Research and Policy Analyst at the Rwanda Revenue Authority.

Naphtal Hakizimana

Naphtal Hakizimana is a Research and Policy Analyst at the Rwanda Revenue Authority.

Yves Nsengiyumva

Yves Nsengiyumva is a researcher and community engagement specialist working on socio-economic development initiatives in Rwanda. He's a management consultant and also the in-country analyst for Euromonitor International.
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